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Principles of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy



Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or otherwise known as electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is the resonant absorption of microwave radiation by an unpaired electron of an atom or molecule (paramagnetic species) when placed in a strong magnetic field. EPR spectra are given as the first derivative of their absorption spectra. It is a powerful technique used to study:


  1. Free Radicals: Atoms, molecules or ions containing one unpaired electron either in the Solid, Liquid or Gaseous Phases
  2. Transition Ions Including Actinide Ions: These routinely may have up to fiveor seven unpaired electrons
  3. Various ‘Point’ Defects in solids: Localized Imperfections
  4. Systems with More than One Unpaired Electron: Triplets state systems, biradicals and multiradicals
  5. Systems with Conducting Electrons: Semiconductors and metals

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